Although isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations are specific to gliomas, proteins called neo-epitopes are produced due to these mutations and these proteins are the target of vaccines.
According to the latest researches published in the journal Nature, the cancer vaccine developed for brain cancer, which stimulates the immune system of people and enables the said immune system to target tumors more easily, has successfully passed the Phase 1 trials. It is stated that the new vaccine stimulates the immune system in a meaningful way, which slows down tumor development, and Phase 2 trials of the vaccine are planned.
Approximately 70% of tumor formations, which are called glioma and constitute a type that is difficult to treat among brain cancers, have single gene mutations that affect the enzyme called isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH 1).
Although isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations are specific to gliomas, proteins called neo-epitopes are produced due to these mutations, and these proteins are the target of vaccines.
After years of animal experiments, the researchers also started vaccination studies on humans in 2015, and 33 individuals with IDH 1 glioma participated in the studies. Now, the Phase 1 trials have been concluded and according to the results, although the vaccine was safe, no serious adverse effects were encountered in the vaccine.
Finally, let’s add that the vaccine is 93% successful in inducing the immune response, in other words, T cells successfully target cells with the IDH 1 mutation in these individuals. In addition, although the survival rate of the participants is 84%, it is stated that there is no tumor growth in 82% of the participants during the 3-year period.